An updated dichotomous key to the snakes of Europe

  • Matteo Riccardo Di Nicola IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Unit of Dermatology, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy
  • Francesco Paolo Faraone
  • Thomas Zabbia
Keywords: dichotomous key, European territory, Ophidia, snakes, species identification


This work presents an updated dichotomous key to all snake species of Europe, based on morphological, morphometric and distributional characters. It gathers data from both the last dichotomous keys concerning European snake species and every following paper giving updates on taxonomic classification or the occurrence of new allochthonous species. The key includes 58 species of snakes (five of which are recent allochthonous and one is listed as “uncertain taxon”) distributed on the European territory, and photographic material for each species. The aim of this paper is to make the identification of all European snake species through a single manuscript more accessible, not only for the research field, but also for the citizen science, thus enhancing data collection and assist species conservation.

Research Papers